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Acronym

INTERMED

Complete name

The impact of climate change on Mediterranean intertidal communities: losses in coastal ecosystem integrity and services

Objective(s)

Scientific assessment of impacts of Climate Change on coastal ecosystem and socio-economic consequences

Summary

Officially launched in November 2008 and closed at the end of October 2010, INTERMED aim was to evaluate climate change impacts on intertidal communities in the Mediterranean basin. Forecast of socio-economic consequences, design of potential mitigation strategies and outreach actions were also planned as integral parts of the project.

Field and laboratory activities performed
As far as the bio-ecological section of INTERMED was concerned, we developed a threepronged approach:
- Systematic reviewing of literature information;
- Field sampling, measurements and experiments;
- Mesocosm manipulation (laboratory experiments and measurements).
More specifically, the following activities were performed on selected intertidal key-organisms of the soft (clams, crabs) and rocky (mussels, limpets, sponges, snails, crabs) intertidal:
- Defining the state-of-the-art: systematic reviews concerning temperature effects physiology and behaviour. Systematic reviews concerning the effects of other environmental drivers (salinity, water acidification...). Review and literature data collection concerning the ecology of the Mediterranean intertidal.
- Characterisation of the environment: temperature profiling of the rocky and soft intertidal. Map of irradiance and temperature throughout the whole Mediterranean basin at the sea level. Other models comprising salinity, wave energy and complex environmental variables at the local and/or basin scale.
- Biodiversity, abundance, distribution and morphometric parameters: collection of intertidal samples from the rocky coasts of Italy (Liguria and Sicily), Croatia and Malta. Collection of samples from soft bottoms in Croatia. Sampling in rocky intertidal pools (Sicily).
- Alien species: distribution, abundance, morphometric parameters, physiology of invasive crabs (Croatia) and mussels (Italy - Sicily).
- Field manipulation and measurements: physiological (heart beat rate, scope for growth, heat shock proteins) and behavioural research on invertebrates in the rocky intertidal.
- Mesocosm: scope for growth measurements (feeding, respiration and excretion rates at varying temperature) for intertidal clams, mussels, sponges and limpets. Heart beat rate measurements on mussels and limpets. Haemolimph osmolarity and Arrhenius breakpoint temperature on mussles and limpets. Heat shock proteins measurements on mussels, limpets and intertidal snails.

Reviewing studies on major physiological responses by the selected key-intertidal organisms mentioned above revealed marked discontinuities in several datasets, meaning important gaps in primary research. These were therefore the focus of subsequent field and laboratory INTERMED research, which contributed a large amount of new information, potentially crucial to science and management. However, very scarce information concerning the interaction among Mediterranean intertidal organisms, and/or cascade effects of environmental drivers on the Mediterranean intertidal (or Mediterranean intertidal species) could be retrieved in the literature. This impressive lack of background knowledge was not at all expected at the time when INTERMED was designed and we had to produce a bulk of novel information to start closing the gap. Several papers deriving from the above mentioned research axes have been published or accepted for publication. A number of papers are also in preparation, due early 2011. Preliminary results have been also widely disseminated in national and international conferences and in the press.

Ecological modelling
INTERMED lead to the first Mediterranean application of a model which integrates a very large set of baseline information, ranging from physical/environmental parameters to the physiological and behavioural traits of species. Preliminary analyses describe strongly altered scenarios compared to the actual (already non-pristine) situation. However, given the very limited Mediterranean tidal range (hence the limited span of the habitats at stake), wave splashing has the potential to strongly interact with other climate drivers, possibly buffering the harsh effects of aerial exposure at low tide. While the model is still under optimisation,
this aspect deserves accurate understanding, as it might prove crucial in determining the actual outcomes of climate change impacts on the Mediterranean intertidal.

Socio-economic study
A thorough review of the literature concerning the socio-economic aspects of the Mediterranean intertidal was performed which highlighted the complete absence of previous data. Scarce information was also found concerning the socio-economic aspects of the Mediterranean Sea and of the worldwide intertidal in general, with the exclusion of a few specific habitats (e.g., wetlands, mangrove areas). A paper related to this subject has been accepted for publication. Statistical analysis of data concerning the public perception of seas (data collected in the frame of another EU project but re-analysed for the specific purposes of INTERMED) evidenced the widespread appreciation of seas by the public at large (irrespective of gender, age, education and location) but also the very poor understanding of marine systems, marine science and technology (S&T), and of the benefits deriving by the interplay of seas and S&T. A paper related to this is under preparation.

Stakeholders
INTERMED identified two main categories of stakeholders linked to the Mediterranean intertidal: users (e.g. tourists, residents, business) and policy makers (e.g. conservation managers). Both have been preliminary explored (in Israel and Croatia) for their perception, relationship, use and concerns about the habitat at stake, revealing quite a low understanding and involvement with it. The identification of benefits deriving from the
Mediterranean intertidal (hence associated values) also proved problematic. In the complete absence of a solid basis for the set up of a productive bidirectional dialogue on a larger scale we decided not to move on to a formal stakeholder analysis (following the preliminary engagement) under INTERMED (see below).

Main findings
Thanks to thorough and diversified literature reviewing, INTERMED unveiled that the Mediterranean intertidal has been very poorly addressed by research, in spite of its clear accessibility and visibility (to researchers and to the public at large), and of its apparent simplicity (compared to other marine habitats). This applies both to bio-ecological and to socio-economic studies, with the complete absence of information for the latter. INTERMED has succeeded in producing relevant results to help close the existing gaps, as well as indications for both researchers and policy- and decision-makers.
- INTERMED carried out reviews on the main physiological responses by a number of key intertidal organisms. This evidenced gaps that were addressed by INTERMED itself in subsequent field and laboratory (mesocosm) studies. Results from INTERMED field and laboratory studies provided a large amount of new knowledge that strongly improve the scant existing literature, finally offering valuable bases to future integrative studies.
- Taken altogether, INTERMED results suggest that climate change - especially, but not only, temperature increase - has the potential to impact the Mediterranean intertidal by impairing the physiology of several key-organisms and favouring alien species. Given the key-stone role played by most of the investigate species, impacts are likely to drive cascade effects reaching the community and ecosystem levels.
- However, the narrow range of the Mediterranean intertidal has peculiar implications for its resilience to climate change, where aerial temperature extremes may - for example - be buffered by wave splashing. On the other hand, the same limited amplitude of the habitat implies a very small optimal range of environmental features for intertidal organisms. Under a changing scenario, some species may be able to adapt or migrate while others may be not. Given this and the present lack of understanding of the intertidal connectivity in the Mediterranean, we still do not know how and to what an extent these potential effects at the species level may be reflected on the ecosystem as a whole. Cautionary approaches must therefore be applied when designing interventions and/or conservation policies involving the Mediterranean intertidal.
- INTERMED has also evidenced the poor coverage of Mediterranean systems (and of the Mediterranean intertidal in particular) by socio-economic studies. No valuation study covering the Mediterranean rocky intertidal could be found, while just a few refer to the soft intertidal. As economic valuations are grounded on the benefits that ecosystems provide to humans, and benefits derive from ecosystem functions, a two-pronged approach should be implemented. On one side, deeper understanding of ecosystem functioning should be pursued by bio-ecological studies (which are still largely incomplete, as stated above). On the other hand, an exhaustive list of benefits deriving from the Mediterranean system should be compiled, and associated values quantified.
- INTERMED has produced a list of such benefits, along with a proposed research agenda specifically dedicated to valuing this system. However, most benefits deriving from the Mediterranean intertidal are elusive and can only be appreciated when mediated by a general understanding by the lay public and decision makers. At the present state-of-the art this might be unrealistic. Indeed, INTERMED has also helped reveal that the public perception of seas is biased by stereotypes and superficially limited to few hot topics, whose names prove void of meaning to most. Future valuation studies addressing the Mediterranean intertidal should therefore take due care in framing the valuation strategy.

Indications for policy- and decision-makers
INTERMED unveiled the impressive lack of knowledge related to the bio-ecology and socioeconomy of the Mediterranean intertidal. While contributing to closing such gap with a large amount of new and relevant information, the project also identified a list of key-indications for policy- and decision-makers:
- Include the Mediterranean intertidal in the research agenda, focusing on ecosystem functioning and connectivity with adjacent systems;
- Include the Mediterranean intertidal in the policy agenda, identifying its functions, benefits and values in view of ad-hoc management strategies;
- Invest in education and awareness rising, to reach out to the general public about marine issues, functioning and research.

Outputs
A non-exhaustive list of INTERMED outputs includes:
- Approximately 20 manuscripts/papers submitted to peer-reviewed international journals (published, in press or under review);
- Approximately 20 manuscripts in preparation, submission due for the first half of 2011;
- 1 regular issue dedicated to INTERMED in the peer-reviewed international journal Chemistry and Ecology;
- 1 paper in the magazine International Innovation (Research Media) aimed to the community of stakeholders;
- 1 book of abstracts to the INTERMED International Workshop (further to the 20 posters/oral communications mentioned here below);
- ca. 35 posters and/or oral communications to national and international congresses, included invited talks;
- 5 PhD theses;
- ca. 15 BSc/MSc theses;
- 1 pamphlet designed for policy- and decision-makers

Publications

See also article in Regional Environmental Change supplement issue (Volume 14 - Supplement 1 - Feb. 2014)

 

INTERMED PEER REVIEWED PAPERS
- Papers in press
1. Egzeta-Balic D, Rinaldi A, Peharda M, Prusina I, Montalto V, Niceta N, Sará G. The energy budget of the subtidal bivalve, Modiolus barbatus (Mollusca) at different temperatures. Marine Environmental Research.
2. Gianguzza G, Agnetta D, Bonaviri C, Di Trapani F, Visconti G, Gianguzza F, Riggio S. The advance of the thermophilic sea urchins and barren grounds in the Mediterranean Sea: a research perspective. Chemistry and Ecology (Intermed special Issue).
3. Lo Brutto S, Arculeo M, Grant W. Coupling climate warming with population genetic structure of marine species. Chemistry and Ecology (Intermed special Issue).
4. Mannino AM, Toccaceli M. Impacts of climate change on Mediterranean algae and seagrasses: responses, forecasting and management recommendations. Chemistry and Ecology (Intermed special Issue).
5. Milanese M, Sarà A, Sarà G, Murray JH. Climate change, marine policy and the valuation of Mediterranean intertidal ecosystems. Chemistry and Ecology (Intermed special Issue).
6. Sarà G, De Pirro M. Heart beat rate of invasive Brachidontes pharaonis with respect to the native Mytilaster minimus within the Mediterranean Sea at varying salinites. Italian Journal of Zoology.
7. Sarà G et al. Impacts of marine aquaculture at large spatial scales: evidences from N and P catchment loading and phytoplankton biomass. Marine Environmental Research.
8. Sarà G, Kearney M, Helmuth B. Combining heat-transfer and energy budget models to predict local and geographic patterns of mortality in Mediterranean intertidal mussels. Chemistry and Ecology (Intermed special Issue).
9. Sarà G, Sarà A, Milanese M. The impact of climate change on Mediterranean intertidal communities: the INTERMED project. Chemistry and Ecology (Intermed special Issue).
10. Silenzi S, Chemello R. Vermetids as sea-level and sea surface temperature natural archives. Chemistry and Ecology (Intermed special Issue).

- Submitted papers
11. Mascolino S, Montalto V, Sarà G. Effect of temperature and food availability on feeding behaviour of bivalves: a review. Italian Journal of Zoology.
12. Palmeri V, Pozo K, Corsolini S, Sarà G, Focardi S. PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and PAHs in marine intertidal gastropods of Western Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin.
13. Romano C, Salvo G, Sarà G, Bishop J, Mazzola A, Widdows J. The effect of the presence of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas (L., 1758), on the burrowing behaviour and clearance rate of the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule (L., 1758). Marine Ecology Progress Series.
14. Sarà G and Rilov G. Factors affecting the distribution of invasive bivalve mollusc, B. pharaonis, in the Mediterranean Sea: present status and future concerns. Biological Invasions.
15. Sarà G, Rinaldi A, Arizza V, De Pirro M, Widdows J. Predicting the distributional patterns of an invasive bivalve (Brachidontes pharaonis) in the Mediterranean: scale and effects of an ecosystem engineer on littoral biodiversity. Global Ecology and Biogeography.
16. Umani M, Corsolini S, Sarà G. Flowing of contaminants through marine coastal food web in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic, Italy). Marine Pollution Bulletin.

- Papers in preparation (tentatitve titles, due Jan - mid 2011)
17. Lo Martire M, Sarà G, Pusceddu A. Trophic balance in Mediterranean intertidal pools and effect on quality and quantity of food availability to secondary consumers. Limnology and Oceanography.
18. Lo Martire M, Sarà G, Pusceddu A. Tidal changes affect trophodynamics in Mediterranean coastal habitats and life histories of organisms. Marine Ecology Progress Series.
19. Manachini B, Rinaldi A, Arizza V, Sarà G. The effect of Baciullus turingensis on scope for growth of Mediterranean bivalves. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
20. Milanese M, Rinaldi A, Montalto V, Sara G, Sará A. Physiological preformances of the marine sponge Chondrilla nucula at varying temperature. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.
21. Milanese M, Sará A, Sará G, De Cantis S. Public perception and attitudes towards seas and marine sciences in Italy. Saints, poets and seafarers? Marine Pollution Bulletin.
22. Nitzan T, Angel D. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of heat shock proteins in the intertidal gastropod Littorina punctata in the Israeli rocky intertidal. Marine Ecology Progress Series.
23. Prusina I, De Pirro M, Sarà G, Rinaldi A, Arizza V, Williams GH. The effect of thermal variability on physiological responses of Mediterranean limpets. Biology Letters.
24. Prusina I, Williams G, De Pirro M, Glamuzina B, Arizza V, Sará G. Adaptation to temperature stress of congeneric Mediterranean limpet species: correlation of physiology and vertical distribution. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.
25. Sará A, Milanese M, Sará G. Sponge feeding habit: a review and a meta analysis. Marine Biology.
26. Sarà G. Effect of wave exposure and thermal microhabitat on density and production of Mytilaster minimus (Poli 1795; Mollusca Bivalvia) in the southern Tyrrhenian intertidal habitats. Marine Biology.
27. Sarà G, Chemello R. The wave splashing by nautical boating has an effect on thermal profile of intertidal pools in the Dendropoma reefs in the Mediterranean Sea and modify the effect of tidal amplitude. Marine Ecology Progress Series.
28. Sarà G, D’Arpa S. Body temperature of the most abundant intertidal organisms in the southern Mediterranean: evidence from infrared imaging. Journal of Thermal Biology.
29. Sarà G, D’Arpa S, Williams GH. Role of gregarism and solitarism in facing changes in body temperature: evidence from suppralittoral Mediterranean gastropods (Melaraphe puntacta). Oecologia.
30. Sarà G, Helmuth B. Weighing the role of tides and other hydrodinamics factors on wet degree in intertidal habitats of the Mediterranean Sea. Ecological Monographs.
31. Sarà G, Lo Martire M, Prestigiacomo F. Predicting the heating rate of shallow waters and effects on fitness of benthic invertebrates and fish. Marine Ecology Progress Series.
32. Sarà G, Milici P, D’Acquisto L. The effect of lowered pH on the shell´s hardness of Brachidontes pharaonis and handling time and feeding rate by Mediterranean warty crab, Eriphia verrucosa (Malacostraca, Decapoda). Marine Ecology Progress Series.
33. Sarà G, Montalto V, Palmeri V, Rinaldi A, Bracciali C. Testing the Strathman and Strathman hypothesis: experimental evidence with marine ectotherms. American Naturalist.
34. Sarà G, Palmeri V. From individual level to communities: a long jump to explain how to link the effect of human impact to biodiversity. Ecology Letters.
35. Sarà G, Rinaldi A, Gennusa V, Mannino A. Intertidal benthic diversity of hard substrata is lowered by presence of small mussels: a case study from the southern Tyrrhenian (Mediterranean Sea). Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology.
36. Sarà G, Rinaldi A, Montalto V, Palmeri V, Kearney M, Helmuth B, Kooijman SALM. Using the dynamic energy budget model to trace boundaries of biogeographical distribution of marine animals: a study case with bivalves. Ecological Monographs.
37. Sarà G, Rinaldi A, Savarino S, Montalto V. The effect of lowered pH at varying temperatures on scope for growth of Brachidontes pharaonis. Ecological Applications.
38. Rinaldi A, Prusina I, Montalto V, Glamuzina B, Sará G. Energy budgets of three Mediterranean soft bottom bivalve species. Journal of Comparative Physiology B.

INTERMED PARTICIPATION IN SYMPOSIA, WORKSHOP AND CONGRESSES
- Invited talks
40. Helmuth B, Kearney M, Sarà G. Predicting patterns of stress and mortality in intertidal invertebrates: applications of biophysical ecology in a changing world. Symposium “Alternative Approaches to the Study of Global Warming Effects on Natural Communities”, Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America, August 2010, Pittsburgh (PA, USA).
41. Sarà G. The effect of environmental variability on responses of marine organisms. Italian National Research Council, February 2010, Capo Granitola (Trapani, Italy).
42. Sarà G. Introducing the INTERMED International Workshop – Intertidal organisms as a proxy for climate change. INTERMED international workshop, March 2009, Palermo (Italy).
43. Sarà G. The human impact on the ecological responses of marine organisms. University College of Dublin, October 2010, Dublin (Ireland).
44. Sarà G, Palmeri V. The human impact on the ecological responses of marine organisms and bioenergetics aspects. European AquaDEB Meeting, University of Nantes, April 2010, Nantes (France).
- Proceedings
45. Arizza V, Manachini B, Sarà G 2010. Effect of Baciullus turingensis on respiration rates of marine intertidal Mytilaster minimus (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Proceedings of the Symposium of 43th Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology, July 11-15, 2010, Trabzon-Turkey.
46. Arizza V, Manachini B, Sarà G 2010. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis on physiological rates of Mediterranean marine intertidal Brachidontes pharaonis (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Proceedings of IV Congresso LaguNet, Marsala, Italy, 27- 30 October 2010.
47. Bratos A, Prusina I, Glamuzina B 2009. Seasonal changes of molluscan fauna in the Neretva River estuary (East Adriatic). Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
48. Buffa G, Sarà, G 2009. The available space on the intertidal habitats is reduced in presence if an invasive bivalve. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
49. Curatolo T, Sarà G, Arculeo M, Lo Brutto S 2010. Morphometric diversity of the mussel Brachidontes pharaonis in different coastal environments. Proceedings of IV Congresso LaguNet, Marsala, Italy, 27- 30 October 2010.
50. De Pirro M, Sarà G 2009. Review of immediate cardiac response in intertidal gastropods limpets at varying temperature, salinity and air exposure. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
51. Di Marca S, Lo Martire M, Nasello C, Ciraolo G, Sarà G 2009. Investigating marine shallow waters dynamics to explore the role of turbidity on ecological responses. Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Physical Processes in Natural Waters (PPNW), Palermo, Italy, 1-4 September 2009.
52. Ferro G, Sarà G, Montalbano ME 2009. Identifying suitable proxies for climate change impacts: effect of environmental variability on oxygen consumption of benthic invertebrates. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
53. Freeman S 2009. Economic dimensions of climate change in intertidal ecosystems. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
54. Lo Martire M, Di Marce S, Pusceddu A, Sarà G 2009. Food supply in shallow waters is regulated by physical factors: experimental evidences from the Stagnone di Marsala Lagoon (Western Sicily). 44th European Symposium of Marine Biology, Liverpool (UK) 7-11 September 2009.
55. Mascolino S, Sarà G 2009. Identifying a proxies for climate change impacts in intertidal habitats: is bivalve clearance rate affected by temperature changes? Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
56. Milanese M, Angel D, Bracciali C, De Cantis S, Ferrante M, Freeman S, Glamuzina B, La Parroco A, Lo Martire M, Prusina I, Rinaldi A, Sarà A, Sarà, G 2009. INTERMED: The impact of climate change on Mediterranean intertidal communities: losses in coastal ecosystem integrity and services. Proceedings of Circle Final and Outlook Conference, Wien, Austria, 9-10 September 2009.
57. Milanese M, Rinaldi A, Montalto V, Sará G, Sarà A 2010. Clearance and respiration rates of shallow Chondrilla nucula at varying temperature. Proceedings of VII World Sponge Conference. Girona, Spain, 20-24 September 2010.
58. Milazzo M, Quattrocchi F, Graziano M, Badalamenti F, Sarà G, Chemello R 2009. Invasive mussels directly threat intertidal vermetid reef: some evidences from a Sicilian MPA. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
59. Montalto V, Niceta N, Rinaldi A, Sarà G 2010. Aspects of heat stress in intertidal bivalve molluscs during emersion. Proceedings of XX Congresso SITE. Rome, Italy, 27-30 September 2010.
60. Nitzan T, Angel D 2009. Climate change, global warming and heat stress in Eastern Mediterranean coastal invertebrates. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
61. Palmeri V, Firmamento R, Sarà G 2010. Effect of feeding conditions on Brachidontes pharaonis (Mollusca, Bivalvia) respiration and growth rates. Proceedings of IV Congresso LaguNet, Marsala, Italy, 27- 30 October 2010.
62. Palmeri V, Pozo K, Sarà G, Focardi S 2009. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OC pesticides in intertidal marine gastropods of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). 44th European Symposium of Marine Biology, Liverpool (UK) 7-11 September, 2009.
63. Palmeri V, Rinaldi A, Montalto V, Sarà G 2011. The estimation of DEB parameters for the invasive intertidal bivalve, Brachidontes pharaonis. Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Dynamic Energy Budget Theory, 13-15 April, Lisbon, Portugal, 2011.
64. Prusina I, Rinaldi A, Glamuzina B, Sarà G 2010. Energy status snapshot of three Mediterranean soft bottom bivalve species. Proceedings of IV Congresso LaguNet, Marsala, Italy, 27- 30 October 2010.
65. Prusina I. 2009. The structure of limpet (Gastropoda, Patellidae) populations on two locations in the SE Adriatic. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
66. Rinaldi A, Montalto V, Niceta N, Sarà G 2009. Local food availability affects invasion ability of alien bivalves: an experimental and simulation integrated approach. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
67. Rinaldi A, Savarino S, Montalto V, Sarà G 2010. The effect of lowered pH on shelled organisms of shallow waters: the case of Brachidontes pharaonis (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Proceedings of IV Congresso LaguNet, Marsala, Italy, 27- 30 October 2010.
68. Sarà A, Milanese M, Sarà G 2009. Identifying suitable proxies for climate change impacts in shallow Mediterranean habitats: sponge filtration not a ready-to-use tool yet. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
69. Sará A, Milanese M, Sará G 2010. Measuring sponge feeding habit: an analysis across the literature. Proceedings of VII World Sponge Conference. Girona, Spain, 20-24 September 2010.
70. Sarà G 2009. Scope for growth of the intertidal Lessepsian bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis (Fisher 1870) at varying environmental variables. BIOLIEF, The World Conference on Biological Invasions and Ecosystem functioning. Porto (Portugal), 27-30 October 2009.
71. Sarà G, Bracciali C, La Manna G, Lo Martire M, Palmeri V, Rinaldi A 2009. A statistical approach to study the human impact on the ecological responses of marine organisms. The Italian Society of Biometry, Italy September 2009.
72. Sarà G, Kearney M, Helmuth B 2010. Using temperature and food density to predict growth and reproduction of intertidal marine invertebrate ectotherms and the repercussion on biodiversity. Proceedings of XX Congresso SITE. Rome, Italy, 27-30 September 2010.
73. Zenone A, De Pirro M, Arizza V, Sarà G 2009. Clearance rate, heart beat rete and heat shock protein expression of Brachidontes pharaonis (Mollusca, Bivalvia) under varying temperature. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.
74. Zenone A, De Pirro M, Sarà G, Helmuth B 2009. Heart Beat Rate: a physiological response to thermal stress in blue mussels. Proceedings of the INTERMED Project. Palermo, Italy, 9-10 March 2009.

TRAINING: BSc, MSc and PhD theses
- Bachelors
75. Aglieri Rinella A 2009. Scope for Growth of Brachidontes pharaonis from intertidal pools. Bachelor Thesis Dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-26.
76. Caruso G 2010. Metabolic responses at varying temperature in jellyfish. Bachelor Thesis Dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-37.
77. Casà MV 2010. The animal assemblage in Mediterranean tidal pools. Bachelor Thesis dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-41.
78. D’Arpa S 2009. Behavioural traits of intertidal gastropods at varying thermal variance. Master thesis dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-23.
79. Firmamento R 2010. Bioenergetics in Brachidontes pharaonis (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Bachelor Thesis dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-24.
80. Guastella A 2009. Effect of temperature on metabolic responses of Mediterranean intertidal organisms and repercussions on biodiversity. Bachelor Thesis dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-36.
81. Milici P 2010. Experimental studies of predation and interactions on the mussel Brachidontes pharaonis by the crab Eriphia verrucosa. Bachelor Thesis dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-44.
82. Niceta N 2010. Study of the energy budget in Mytilaster minimus at varying temperature and food availability. Bachelor Thesis Dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-21.
83. Prestigiacomo F 2009. The fish assemblage of Mediterranean shallow waters: the Stagnone di Marsala study case. Bachelor Thesis Dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-30.
84. Ruggirello M 2009. Benthic assemblage of shallow waters at different depth and thermal variance: the Stagnone di Marsala study case. Bachelor Thesis Dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-26.
85. Savarino S 2010. Effects of acidification on the ecological response of organisms: a case study on molluscs of intertidal pools. Bachelor Thesis Dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-59.
86. Schiavo S 2010. The vegetal assemblage in Mediterranean tidal pools. Bachelor Thesis dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-36.
- Master theses
87. Ferro G 2009. Metabolic responses of benthic invertebrate at varying environmental conditions: the study case with lowered pH. Master thesis dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-48.
88. Mascolino S 2009. The effect of environmental variance on filtration mechanisms in suspension feeding organisms: a systematic review. Master thesis dissertation of University of Pisa, pp. 1-67.
89. Montalto V 2010. Elements of bioenergetics in bivalve molluscs: combined effects of temperature, food and acclimation. Master thesis dissertation of University of Palermo, pp. 1-67.
90. Nitzan T 2010. The effect of teperature on the synthesis of heat shock proteins in the intertidal gastropod Littorina punctata in the Israeli rocky littoral. Master thesis dissertation of Haifa University.
91. Prestigiacomo F 2011. Environmental variance and bioenergetics aspects involved to study the life histories of shallow water fish. Master thesis dissertation of University of Palermo.
92. Spina C 2011. The fish assemblages of intertidal pools in Southern Mediterranean. Master thesis dissertation of University of Palermo.
- PhD internships & theses
93. Lo Martire M 2009-2012. Role of interfaces on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. PhD thesis dissertation of University of Ancona (Italy).
94. Montalto V 2011-2014. Modelling the ecological niche of intertidal benthic organisms from functional traits. PhD Thesis dissertation of University of Palermo (Italy).
95. Palmeri V 2009-2012. Ecological responses by marine intertidal filter feeders at varying variance scales induced by anthropogenic pressures. PhD Thesis dissertation of University of Palermo (Italy).
96. Prusina I 2009-2012. The impact of climate change on the soft bottom and rocky shore invertebrates of the southern coasts of Croatia (SE Adriatic). PhD Thesis dissertation of University of Dubrovnik-Split (Croatia).
97. Rinaldi A 2010-2013. The effect of thermal variability on metabolic responses of invertebrates ectotherms in shallow waters. PhD Thesis dissertation of University of Messina (Italy).

Contact

Gianluca SARA: [email protected]

Web site

http://www.unipa.it/intermed/index.html

Workpackages

Project Agenda

INTERMED International Workshop and kick off meeting
Intertidal Organisms as proxy for climate change
Date: 08 March 2009 / 14 March 2009

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